Interesting Results


In my last letter, I promised to send you the results of our Scientific Research Day.

As I described in my previous letter, I will just run through the basic arrangements. The date decided upon was Sunday 23rd July; the weather forecast was unsettled, a mixture of rain and sun. The date is planned some months ahead in order for our plans to fall into place. Undaunted by the forecast (we have conducted tests in rain before now), we met at the Avebury Sports and Social Club. It is a wonderfully convenient venue with good private parking and ample electrical outlets for computers etc.  This is where we conduct the first control tests.

Advanced Clinical Physiologist Paul Gerry from the Devon and Exeter Hospital kindly joined us in order to conduct the tests. Our participants were Parkinson’s Disease sufferer Heidrun Warton. There are several types of Parkinson’s syndrome including one with no tremor such as happens in Heidrun’ case. Amongst the many other problems, sufferers are prone to mood disturbances such depression (sadness, loss of energy, decreased interest in activities) and anxiety (uncontrollable worry).


Other participants were long-time Essential Tremor sufferers Linda Daubney and Tina Martin. Aurele O’Malley acted as guinea pig.


Right from the start I knew it was going to be an unusual day. There were no circles. However, there was a field of barley in which the first circle of 2023 had appeared on the 28th May. By the 23rd July, over eight weeks later, the field had been harvested, leaving it in stubble. The remains of the circle were lying flat to the ground where the crop had been flattened. It was a very large field and wet underfoot after so much rain. This made walking more difficult, especially carrying all our equipment. We had been given the approximate site of the circle, which otherwise we would never have found except by a stroke of extraordinary good luck. Just imagine standing at the edge of a large field of stubble, a field so large that we could not see the far edge looking towards the distant horizon.

It was like searching for a needle in a haystack; trying to locate a flattened circle somewhere. It was below the height of the stubble, so impossible to see except from close to. All you could see would be the short stalks of the crop.


Aurele nimbly went ahead across the stubble and found the tramline that would take us straight into the flattened circle.

This is not completely new territory as in 2014 and 2018, we conducted our tests in circles that the farmer had mown out. Admittedly they were only a few days old and not like the one at Broad Hinton which was over eight weeks old. My hopes were not high. The results we had had from the tests conducted in 2014
and 2018
were quite remarkable.

Geometer Michael Glickman (sadly no longer with us) sent me an email which reads as follows: ‘I have been drawing the circles now for nearly thirty years and I was astonished by the skill and precision embodied in Martinsell Hill. It is, in my view, one of the top ten (maybe five!) formations we have received. But perhaps I am prejudiced!

It contains 28 pentagrams and 140 precisely formed isosceles triangles, each with a prime angle of 36 degrees which automatically generates the golden section.

Any suggestion that this meticulous and majestic crop formation might be man-made is bizarre to the point of lunacy.

2023 Results

Sadly the 2023 results apart from the dramatic improvement in Tina Martin’s handwriting were not remarkable. Maybe it was too old?

Our research is centred around conducting tests relating to the temporary relief of Parkinson’s disease. It has been found that in Parkinsons sufferers, if the level of brain activity is raised to the gamma level of brain activity 30-100Hz it can inhibit dyskinesia (stop or reduce the tremor). The gamma wave originates in the thalamus and moves from the back of the brain to the front and back again 40 times per second in a rapid “full sweep” action. This makes the gamma state one of peak mental and physical performance. Gamma is the brainwave state of being ‘in the zone.' Gamma brain waves are associated with the “feeling of blessings” reported by experienced meditators.

Paul Gerry wrote: ‘Just a short note to show you a few graphs showing brain waves over time (attached). The left column is the beforehand, middle in the circle and right afterwards. Top graphs are the alpha frequencies (related to relaxed mind) and lower the gamma.

'I think you can see the steady increase in gamma during the time inside the circle which reduces afterwards.

This initial possible interpretation of the brain activity tests showing the increase in gamma were on reflection not important.

Paul Gerry writes ‘I have spent several hours analysing the brain waves, heart beat, eye movements and the tremor recordings.

So far I can’t find any significant changes in the three recordings I took of each person.

The initial gamma frequency change I am afraid to say is likely to be just muscle tension.

I have been in touch with the MD of the company who makes the equipment and he says he will join the before/in/after recordings together so I can view them continuously to look for variations.

I am attaching Paul’s full report herewith. It is quite lengthy, so you may want to skip it.




  • BVP – Blood volume pulse
  • ECG -Electrocardiograph (heart beat)
  • EEG - Electroencephalograph (brain wave)
  • EOG – Electro-oculograph (eye movements)
  • HRV – (Heart rate variability)
  • PD – Parkinson’s Disease
  • PSP - Progressive Supranuclear Palsy


It has been reported that being in a crop circle can -

  1. Give a feeling of wellbeing
  2. Alleviate symptoms of some conditions, especially Parkinson’s disease.
  3. Reduce the amount of hand tremor in subjects suffering from essential tremor and other pathologies.
  • 1. Environmental wellbeing refers to the mental, physiological and emotional states of people passing through certain places. In this context, wellbeing must be measurable and to some extent, susceptible to external influence within short time-spans. The Electroencephalograph (EEG) is an immediate representation of this concept. The variability of the time between each heart beat (Heart Rate Variability HRV) also is an indicator of physical and mental health.
  • 2. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from a loss of dopaminergic neurons. Recent advances in technology have enabled higher brainwave frequencies to be recorded, such 30 cycles per second and above (gamma-band activity GBA). These have correlation to such disorders as PD. The GBA has been shown to be related to PD binding of sensory integration. Also smooth eye movements can be impaired due to a condition called PSP. Therefore measurements of the Gamma brainwave frequency and eye movements could indicate degree of effect from PD .
  • 3. Using an app on the mobile that was developed for self monitoring tremor in Parkinson’s patients.


To record the various physiological signals and compare before and after being in the circle.

  1. States of mind- “wellbeing”.
  2. Parkinson’s Disease.
  3. Tremor

The equipment produced by Vilistus ( is ideal for recording suitable parameters. (Illustrated in graph below)

EEG (brainwave frequencies from right and left hemispheres) – looking at the various frequency


EOG (eye movements) Measurement of Ocular motility i.e. hypometric saccades in PD.

HRV (Heart Rate Variability) – Using a BVP sensor, HRV is a key indicator of physiological resiliency and ability to adapt effectively to stress and environmental demands.

Recording in the crop circle

Although the corn had been harvested it was felt there was a certain warmth and welcoming in the circle.

Electrodes were applied to the two sides of the head in specific places called T3, O2 and T3, O1 (according to the “10-20 system” with a conducting paste after the scalp was rubbed with a skin prep to reduce the electrical impedances.

      Below: The raw traces being viewed and stored on the equipment

above: top two traces are the EEG from right and left hemisphere

third trace EOG

bottom pulse (heart rate)


There were two subjects, one with a diagnosis of PD and a “control”.

Recordings of the EEG and BVP along with EOG on the PD subject while she performed lateral eye movements to command were obtained, before in a study room, inside the crop circle and afterward outside the field.


EOG (Lateral eye movements) in the Parkinson’s subject

The lateral eye movements were very similar apart from more facial muscle interference inside the circle. There was no sign of PSP so it could not be used to monitor any improvement.

Brain activity (EEG)

The EEG is an accurate measurement of the physiological state of the brain.

The alpha frequencies (8 – 13 waves or cycles a second), relates to level of relaxation while theta (5 – 7 c/s) is closer to mindfulness and a meditative state. Gamma oscillations are thought to be related to deep brain structures and even self-healing mechanisms.

The following graphs are the three recording sessions (length approx. 10 minutes before, five minutes inside and five minutes after).


A slight increase of amplitude in the centre of this graph is seen during the time in the circle, suggesting deep relaxation, almost a meditative state.

Alpha frequency

The frequency fluctuates more during and after time in the circle relating to an altered mental state, alternating perhaps between reality and inner awareness of thoughts?

Parkinson’s Subject

Along with the fluctuations of the frequency the alpha amplitude slowly increases during the time in the circle, possibly due to being at peace.


It would certainly appear that there is an increase in Gamma frequencies inside and after being in the circle. Could this be evidence of the circle having a healing effect?

Similar to the frequency graph, Gamma increases in amplitude once the subject is in the circle.


Interestingly the Gamma frequencies in the Parkinson’s subject show increase after she was in the circle.

The Gamma amplitude decreases during time in the circle but increases again afterwards. This needs further investigation.

Tremor readings from Essential tremor sufferer

The interesting feature of the tremor measurements is that the frequency distribution alters showing that the tremor movements become less complex, however the method of measurement needs refining as simply extending the hand is not comparable to a complex task such as writing.


This is perhaps the most striking graph showing significant variation in the heart rate inside the circle and also continuing afterwards.

High HRV is showing proper emotional regulation, decision making and attention. High HRV is illustrating increased parasympathetic activity.


However, with the Parkinson’s subject, the HRV decreases.

This could be showing a sympathovagal imbalance – illustrating both sympathetic and vagal activities are decreased. Definitely more research is required.

Overall Conclusions

Tremor measurements using smartphone sensors were not suitable for recording a tremor that alters with intension.

Eye movements (EOG) are not always appropriate for assessing PD changes.

EEG amplitude is a sensitive index of the state of the mind, especially the theta, alpha and gamma bands.

Interbeat variability in the heart rate is the best way to monitor both physiological and mental changes.

Further studies of EEG and HRV are recommended.

My great thanks to neuroscientist Paul Gerry for continuing to conduct and devote his valuable time to record these important tests.

I find it interesting that both Heidron and Tina showed a marked difference after being in the circle.